Prev– Grass-opal phytoliths as climatic indicators Next– Paleoindian sites in the Neosho River drainage. The archeological record of the paleoindian occupation of present Kansas is scant and consists, for the most part, of 27 recorded sites and additional isolated finds of temporally and culturally diagnostic projectile points. A compilation of locational and typological data concerning this record as it is known to date is presented. The few excavated sites of late Pleistocene and early Holocene human populations in Kansas are briefly discussed. An attempt is made to discern any pattern in the association of paleoindian sites with topographic features and soil complexes. It is suggested that the distribution of paleoindian sites in Kansas reflects archeological-survey biases in certain topographic settings, primarily stream valleys, and regions, primarily the eastern half, of the state. Finally, it is suggested that adequate surveys for evidence of paleoindians must coincide with geomorphic research into the age and evolution of the late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape. The archeological record of the paleoindian occupation of present Kansas consists of 27 recorded sites i.
Projectile Points of the North Carolina Piedmont
Investigators in southem California often employ Great Basin and Mojave Desert projectile point chronologies to date their prehistoric.
This page is your gateway to two types of point typology indexes:. The assumption in using this index is that you know the type and want to view information about the type. The Shape Index is my newest index. It is designed to help you identify a projectile point type that you may not know the name of. The shape or morphology index is organized by 10 major hafting area shape groups. An explanation and example for using the shape index is provided at the top of that index.
However, in late Americal Online withdrew the members area of their free web hosting site. I will assist in any way I can as time allows. It is suggested that your computer or web browsing device be able to display at least colors and the screen resolution be set to a minimum of x to enjoy the digital color photgraphs within the LITHICS-Net site. The compressed graphics make the photos look muddy. I hope you find these helpful and as time allows, I will be annotating the bookmarked Glossary of Terms with these illustrations.
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Projectile Point Workshop
Ripley P. Bullen collected information about Florida Projectile Points from avocational and professional archaeologists for decades. First presenting his typology in the s, this work was meant as a starting point to understand stone tool types that could be refined and built upon through the years See Bullen History.
There are two classes of projectile points found at Spring Late: dart points and which can be absolutely dated using radiocarbon dating or other methods.
In archaeological terms , a projectile point is an object that was hafted to weapon that was capable of being thrown or projected, such as a spear, dart, or arrow , or perhaps used as a knife. They are thus different from weapons presumed to have been kept in the hand, such as axes and maces , and the stone mace or axe-heads often attached to them. Stone tools, including projectile points, can survive for long periods, were often lost or discarded, and are relatively plentiful, especially at archaeological sites , providing useful clues to the human past, including prehistoric trade.
A distinctive form of point, identified though lithic analysis of the way it was made , is often a key diagnostic factor in identifying an archaeological industry or culture. Scientific techniques exist to track the specific kinds of rock or minerals that used to make stone tools in various regions back to their original sources. As well as stone, projectile points were also made of worked bone , antler or ivory ; all of these are less common in the Americas.
In regions where metallurgy emerged, projectile points were eventually made from copper , bronze , or iron , though the change was by no means immediate.
Maine Memory Network
For the past 2. Rock has been our friend! Projectile points and stone tools are great ways to see how cultures have changed over time and to pinpoint who was at a particular archaeological site at a given time. Odds are that where there were people, there were projectile points, more commonly known as arrowheads. As cultures evolve, so too does the material, shape, style and use of their stone tools, making them a great way for archaeologists to track cultural shifts and evolutions.
Our fair state has played a pivotal role in the tracking, dating and discovery of projectile points.
This page is your gateway to two types of point typology indexes: The Alphabetical Index lists all of the point types that I have cataloged on Lithics-Net to date. It is designed to help you identify a projectile point type that you may not know the.
As mentioned in prior blog posts, the base or stem of the projectile point is necessary for identification of the specific projectile point type. A side notch is one of the projectile point forms that helps archaeologists to organize and identify projectile points. A notch is a half semi-circular, U, or V shape that has been flaked from the base of a stone tool for the purpose of hafting or attaching the tool, such as a projectile point, to a handle or shaft.
In our mid-Atlantic region, the side notch is a technology that was used from Paleolithic times into the Middle Woodland. One example of a point with a side notch is the Halifax point. Halifax points date to the Middle Archaic. The blade is usually long and narrow. The base is typically broad and somewhat straight with side notches that are wide and shallow.
Archaeologists Find Pre-Clovis Projectile Points in Texas
Dovetail is a full service, woman-owned Cultural Resource Management firm headquartered in Fredericksburg, Virginia and serves the Mid-Atlantic Region. This period represents the earliest occupation of North America, when people were settling into new environments that would ultimately shape the way their culture and technology evolved in different parts of the continent. For September we will look at a Paleoindian artifact that continues our series highlighting materials recovered from the Asheboro Bypass Project in Randolph County, North Carolina.
While typological cross-dating is necessary in regions dominated by open-air lithic scatters, the approach can be problematic when undated and dated sites are.
Archaeologists have been hunting for signs of the first inhabitants of the Americas at an area known as the Gault Site outside Killeen, Texas, ever since anthropologists discovered signs of early human occupation there in However, due to poor management of the land, looting, and even a commercial pay-to-dig operation, over the years, many of the upper layers have become irreparably damaged. Then, in , the University of Texas at Austin leased the land and began academic excavations. Digging deeper, archaeologists found 2.
But the latest discoveries to be unearthed at Gault are arguably the most exciting to date: unknown projectile points, which push back human occupation of the area at least 2, years before the Clovis civilization, reports Kevin Wheeler at the Texas Standard. The Clovis civilization derives its name from Clovis points, long 4-inch fluted projectile spear tips that archaeologists digging near Clovis, New Mexico, first came across in the early 20th century.
Since that time, the distinctive points have been located at some 1, sites around North America, with the oldest dating back 13, years.
Arrowheads are among the most easily recognized type of artifact found in the world. Untold generations of children poking around in parks or farm fields or creek beds have discovered these rocks that have clearly been shaped by humans into pointed working tools. Our fascination with them as children is probably why there are so many myths about them, and almost certainly why those children sometimes grow up and study them. Here are some common misconceptions about arrowheads, and some things that archaeologists have learned about these ubiquitous objects.
Stanly projectile points date to the early Middle Archaic period (ca. 6,, B.C.) and have been recovered in stratified contexts at the Icehouse Bottom.
The stratigraphic record shows Clovis projectile points to be restricted to sediments between 11, and 11, years old. Underlying deposits dating back 11, to 13, years are without evidence of human occupation. In the High Plains, overlying deposits dating back 10, to 11, years contain Folsom and Hell Gap artifacts and are without mammoth remains. The glacial history of Alaska, Canada, and the Great Lakes region indicates that, for the first time in at least 15, years, an ice-free, trans-Canadian corridor opened up approximately 12, years ago.
Since Clovis points are distributed from coast to coast south of the Valders ice border, the abrupt appearance of Clovis artifacts in the stratigraphic record of the High Plains some years later suggests that Clovis progenitors passed through Canada during Two Creeks time. If eastern fluted points for example, Enterline are older than Clovis points, the difference may be on the order of only a hundred or so years, not thousands.
The change from Clovis points to Folsom points in the High Plains may be related to a marked decline in the mammoth population after 11, years ago, but whether or not man was a prime factor in the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna is a moot question. On the basis of new data and critical geological evaluation of dates obtained by the radiocarbon method a hypothesis has been offered to explain i the abrupt appearance of Clovis points in the stratigraphic record of the United States around 11, years ago, and ii the lack of a cultural continuum in the United States leading to fluted projectile points.
Llano hunters, like the game they pursued, may have persisted longer in some areas of the continent for example, Bull Brook than in others, but if a Clovis site can be found for which good stratigraphic evidence supports a date earlier than the Two Creeks interstade, then correlation of this event to the opening of the trans-Canadian ice-free corridor is incorrect see 41a. Such a misinterpretation of timing would not affect the explanation for the lack of Clovis progenitors in the United States.
We must continue to look for an indigenous cultural continuum leading to Clovis points, but if such cannot be demonstrated in the conterminous United States, then it would appear that fluted projectile points were developed elsewhere. Clovis progenitors might best be sought in northern Alaska or the Mackenzie Valley.